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Hirudo medicinalisthe European medicinal leechis one of several species of leeches used as " medicinal leeches ". Beiden Verletzung Blutfluss der in Arterien uterine species of Hirudo sometimes also used as medicinal leeches Thrombophlebitis Person H. The Mexican medical leech is Hirudinaria manillensisand the North American medical leech is Thrombophlebitis Person decora.
The general Thrombophlebitis Person of medicinal leeches follows that of most other leeches. The dorsal side also has a thin Thrombophlebitis Person stripe. These organisms have two suckers, one at each end, called the anterior and posterior suckers. The posterior is used mainly for leverage, whereas the anterior sucker, consisting of the jaw and teethis Thrombophlebitis Person the feeding takes place.
Medicinal leeches have three jaws tripartite that look like little saws, and on them are about sharp teeth used to incise the host. The incision leaves a mark that Thrombophlebitis Person an inverted Y inside Thrombophlebitis Person a circle.
After piercing the skin, they suck out blood whilst injecting anticoagulants hirudin and anaesthetics. Large adults can consume up Thrombophlebitis Person ten times their body Thrombophlebitis Person in Thrombophlebitis Person single meal, with 5—15 ml being the average volume taken. Medicinal leeches are hermaphrodites that reproduce by sexual mating, laying eggs in clutches of up to 50 near but not under water, and in shaded, humid places.
Their range extends over almost the whole of Europe and into Asia as far as Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The preferred habitat for this species is muddy freshwater pools and ditches with plentiful weed growth in temperate climates. Over-exploitation by leech collectors in the 19th century has left only scattered populations, and reduction in natural habitat though drainage has also contributed to their decline.
As Thrombophlebitis Person result, this species is now considered near threatened by the IUCNand European http://cbr-forum.de/behandlung-mit-trophischen-geschwueren-salbe.php leeches are legally protected through nearly all of their natural range.
They are particularly sparsely distributed in France and Belgiumand in the UK there may be as few as 20 remaining isolated populations Thrombophlebitis Person widely scattered.
The largest at Lydd is estimated to contain several thousand individuals; 12 of these areas have been designated Sites of Special Scientific Interest. There are small, transplanted Thrombophlebitis Person in several countries outside their natural range, including the USA. Medicinal leeches have been found to secrete saliva containing about 60 different proteins.
Several of these secreted proteins serve as anticoagulants such as hirudinplatelet aggregation inhibitors most notably apyrasecollagenaseand calinvasodilatorsThrombophlebitis Person proteinase http://cbr-forum.de/kraut-von-krampfadern.php. The first description of leech therapy, classified as blood lettingwas found in read more text of Sushruta Samhitawritten by Sushruta in B.
He described 12 types learn more here leeches 6 poisonous and 6 non-poisonous. Diseases where leech Thrombophlebitis Person was indicated were skin diseases, sciatica, and musculoskeletal pains. In medieval and early modern medicine, the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis and its congeners Hirudo verbanaHirudo troctinaand Hirudo orientalis was used to remove blood from a patient as part of a process to balance the humors that, according to GalenThrombophlebitis Person be kept in balance for the human body to function properly.
The four humors of ancient medical philosophy were blood, phlegmblack bileand yellow bile. Similarly, any person whose behavior was strident Varikose Behandlungsformulierung sanguine was thought to be suffering from an excess of blood. Leeches were often gathered by leech collectors and were eventually farmed in large numbers.
A recorded use of leeches in medicine was also found during B. Manchester Royal Infirmary used 50, leeches a year in The price of leeches varied between one penny and threepence halfpenny each. In leeches accounted for 4. The hospital maintained an aquarium for leeches until the s. Medicinal leech therapy also referred to as Hirudotherapy or Hirudin therapy made an international comeback in the s Thrombophlebitis Person microsurgery  used to stimulate circulation to salvage skin grafts and other tissue threatened by postoperative venous congestion,   particularly in finger reattachment and reconstructive surgery of the ear, nose, lip, and eyelid.
Because of the minuscule amounts of hirudin present in leeches, it is impractical to harvest the substance for Thrombophlebitis Person medical use.
Hirudin and related substances are synthesised using recombinant techniques. Devices called "mechanical leeches" that dispense heparin and perform the same function as medicinal leeches have been developed, but they are not yet commercially available.
There is found evidence that the endocannabinoid Thrombophlebitis Person mediates Thrombophlebitis Person signalling at synapses in the nervous system of the leech Hirudo medicinalis by activating presynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid-type TRPV ion channels. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hirudo medicinalis Conservation status. International Thrombophlebitis Person for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 24, Retrieved November 26, World Journal of Surgery.
Retrieved December 11, Portrait of a Hospital. The History of Leech Therapy". Retrieved December 18, The New York Times. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. A mechanical medicinal leech?
Retrieved on July 29, University of WisconsinMadison, Division of Otolaryngology. Archived from the original on December 11, Retrieved Thrombophlebitis Person 16, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Retrieved from " https: Click Read Edit View Foto Cremes von Krampfadern. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies.